Details about Conquest of Mecca
Allah Says in the Glorious Quran:
“And what is the matter with you that you spend not in the Cause of Allah? And to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth. Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the conquering (of Makkah) (with those among you who did so later). Such are higher in degree than those who spent and fought afterwards. But to all, Allah has promised the best (reward). And Allah is All-Aware of what you do.” (Surah Al-Hadid 57:10)
“When comes the Help of Allah [to you, O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) against your enemies] and the conquest (of Makkah), And you see that the people enter Allah's religion (Islam) in crowds, So glorify the Praises of your Lord, and ask for His Forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and forgives. (Surah An-Nasr 110:1-3)
The Conquest of Makkah, according to many scholars, took place in 8th Year of Hijri, during the month of Ramadan (approx. December 629 or January 630 CE).
In the month of Dhul Qadah 6th Hijri (628 CE), the Quraish of Makkah and the Muslim of Medinah signed a ten-year truce called the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah (Sulah Hudaybiayah).
Despite the improved relations between Makkah and Madinah after the signing of the Treaty of Al Hudaybiyah, the peace was broken by Quraish of Makkah, with their allies the tribe of Bani Bakr, and attacked the tribe of Khuzaah. Khuzaah were allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (S.A.W.) heard of the attack, he (S.A.W.) immediately ordered his companions to prepare for war.
Muslims started their Journey to Makkah and Prophet's (S.A.W) Breaking of Fast:
On the 10th of Ramadan, 8 AH, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), alongwith his 10,000 companions, which was the largest Muslim force ever assembled as of that time, went on their journey to Makkah. In this context, Al Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (R.A.) that:
"Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) travelled in the month of Ramadan and he fasted till he reached (a place called) 'Usfan’, then he asked for a tumbler of water and drank it by the daytime so that the people might see him. He broke his fast till he reached Makkah."
Ibn Abbas used to say, "Allah's Apostle fasted and sometimes did not fast while traveling, so one may fast or may not (on journeys)" (Sahih Bukhari: 4279)
Abu Sufyan Embraces Islam:
Hisham's father, according to Al-Bukhari, narrated that:
When Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) set out (towards Makkah) during the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) and this news reached (the infidels of Quraish), Abu Sufyan, Hakim bin Hizam and Budail bin Warqa came out to gather information about Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.). They proceeded on their way till they reached a place called ‘Marr-Az-Zahran’ (which is near Makkah). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat.
Abu Sufyan said, "What is this? It looked like the fires of Arafat."
Budail bin Warqa' said, "Banu Amr (Muslim tribe in Madinah) are less in number than that."
Some of the guards of Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) saw them and took them over, caught them and brought them to Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.). Abu Sufyan embraced Islam.
When the Prophet (S.A.W.) proceeded, he (S.A.W.) said to Al-Abbas, "Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at the Muslims.”
So Al-Abbas (R.A.) kept him standing (at that place) and the tribes with the Prophet (S.A.W.) started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batches.
A batch passed and Abu Sufyan said, "O `Abbas Who are these?"
Abbas said, "They are (Banu) Ghifar."
Abu Sufyan said, “I have got nothing to do with Ghifar."
Then (a batch of the tribes of) Juhaina, tribe of Saad bin Huzaim and Banu Sulaim passed by and Abu Sufyan said similarly as above.
Then came a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen. He said, "Who are these?"
Abbas said, "They are the Ansar headed by Saad bin Ubada, the one holding the flag."
Saad bin Ubada said, "O Abu Sufyan! Today is the day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Kaaba will be permissible."
Abu Sufyan said., "O `Abbas! How excellent the day of destruction is! "
Then came another batch (of warriors) which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) and his companions and the flag of the Prophet (S.A.W.) was carried by Az-Zubair bin Al Awwam.
When Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said, (to the Prophet), "Do you know what Saad bin Ubada said?"
The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, "What did he say?"
Abu Sufyan said, "He said so-and-so."
The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, "Saad told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Kaaba and today the Kaaba will be covered with a (cloth) covering."
Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun (place north of the Great Mosque).
Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) ordered Khalid bin Al-Walid to enter Makkah from its upper part from Kada while the Prophet (S.A.W.) himself entered from Kuda (hill in Makkah). Two men from the cavalry of Khalid bin Al-Walid named Hubaish bin Al-Ashar and Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on that day.
Prophet’s (S.A.W.) Instruction to his Army:
Muslims had been ordered by the Prophet (S.A.W.) not to cause any harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering Makkah. The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) had instructed his Commanders they entered Makkah, only to fight those who resisted them, except a four men and two women who were to be killed even if they found beneath the curtains of the Kaabah. Among them were Abdullah Ibn Saad Ibn Abi Sarh, Abdullah Ibn Khadl and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid.
Peaceful entry of Muslim Army into Makkah:
There were four entry routes to Makkah through passes in the hills. These were from the north-west, the south-west, the south, and the north-east. Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) divided the Muslim army into four groups, one to advance through each pass.
The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) entered Makkah on his favorite camel Al-Kaswa, having Usama Ibn Zaid (R.A.) sitting behind him. On his way he recited Surah Al-Fatha (48th Surah of Quran).
Aishah (R.A.) said:
“During the year of the Conquest (of Makkah), the Prophet (S.A.W.) entered Makkah through Kada which was at the upper part of Makkah.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4290)
Narrated Abdullah bin Mughaffal (R.A.), who said:
“I saw Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) reciting Surat Al-Fath on his she-camel on the day of the Conquest of Makkah.” (Sahih Bukhari: 5034)
The Muslim army entered Makkah on Monday, 18th Ramadan, 8th Hijrah. The entry was peaceful and bloodless entry on three routes to Makkah except for that of group of Muslim Army commanded by Khalid ibn Al-Walid (R.A.). The rigid anti-Muslims like Ikrimah and Sufwan gathered fighters from infields of Quraish and faced Khalid's group of Muslim Army. The Quraish attacked the Muslims with swords and bows and the Muslims charged the Quraish's positions. However, after a short battle, the Quraish gave ground after losing twelve men. Muslim losses were two warriors.
Prophet (S.A.W.) entered Kaabah:
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.), who said:
‘The Prophet (S.A.W.) arrived (at Makkah) in the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) while Usama was riding behind him on (his she-camel). Al-Qaswa, Bilal and Uthman bin Talha were accompanying him. When he made his she-camel kneel down near the Kaaba, he said to Uthman,
"Get us the key (of the Kaaba).”
He brought the key to him and opened the gate (of the Kaaba), for him. The Prophet, Usama, Bilal and Uthman (bin Talha) entered the Kaaba and then closed the gate behind them (from inside). The Prophet (S.A.W.) stayed there for a long period and then came out. The people rushed to get in, but I (Ibn Umar) went in before them and found Bilal standing behind the gate, and I said to him,
"Where did the Prophet (S.A.W.) pray?"
He said, "He prayed between those two front pillars."
The Kaaba was built on six pillars, arranged in two rows, and he prayed between the two pillars of the front row leaving the gate of the Kaaba at his back and facing (in prayer) the wall which faces one when one enters the Kaaba. Between him and that wall (was the distance of about three cubits). But I forgot to ask Bilal about the number of rakaat the Prophet (S.A.W.) had prayed. There was a red piece of marble at the place where he (i.e. the Prophet) had offered the prayer.
Narrated by Mujahid, who said, Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) got up on the day of the Conquest of Makkah and said,
"Allah has made Makkah a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity Allah has bestowed on it till the Day of Resurrection. It (i.e. fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me, nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its game should not be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, not its Luqata (i.e. Most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it." (Sahih Bukhari: 4313)
Prophet (S.A.W.) Broke Idols in Kaabah:
There were 360 idols inside the Kaaba representing the different pagan Arab gods. Pictures of the Prophet Abrahim (A.S.) and his son Prophet Ismail (A.S.) and of angels were posted on the walls of Kaaba. The Prophet (S.A.W) after obliterating these pictures broke all idols. The idol of Hubal the so-called god of Makkah could not be broken by the Prophet (S.A.W) or Ali ibn Talib (R.A) as it was fixed at a high place. The Prophet (S.A.W) made Ali (R.A.) stand on his shoulders to break it. Not one person from the whole of Makkah came forward to stop Mohammad (S.A.W) from breaking their gods.
Narrated by Abdullah (R.A.), who said:
'When the Prophet (S.A.W.) entered Makkah on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Kaaba. The Prophet (S.A.W.) started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear.”' (Sahih Bukhari: 4287)
Abu Sufiyan was forgiven:
On the day of Conquest of Makkah, even Abu Sufiyan, who was sure than he will not be forgiven, was forgiven by the Prophet (S.A.W).
Prophet (S.A.W.) asked Abu Sufian why he embraced Islam?
Abu Sufiyan replied that the gods of Makkah had proved powerless and that there was indeed "no god but Allah" (First pillar of Islam).
Because Abu Sufyan was the present chief of Quraish and has become Muslim, Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) declared Abu Sufyan's house a sanctuary and said:
"Even he Who enters the house of Abu Sufyan will be safe, He who lays down arms will be safe, He who locks his door will be safe". (Ref: Al-Kamil fi Al-Tareekh by Ibn Al-Atheer – Page 329)
After dealing with Abu Sufiyan, Prophet (S.A.W.) said to the people of Makkah:
"O Quraish, what do you expect from me today?"
And they said, "Mercy, O Prophet of Allah. We expect nothing but good from you."
After their reply, Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) declared:
" Today I will speak to you as Yusuf spoke to his brothers. I will not harm you and Allah will forgive you for He is Merciful and Loving. Go you are free."
(Ref: Ibn Kathir and Ibn Al-Hajjaj Muslim)
After declaring a general amnesty, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) went up the Safa Hill and accepted the allegiance of the Quraish. Many years ago, he had declared his Prophet-hood there but he was rejected then. Now, he was accepting the allegiance to Islam from the same people on the same hill.
Prophet's (S.A.W.) stay in Makkah and His Journey Prayer:
Many scholars of agreed that the Prophet (S.A.W.), after conquest of Makkah, stayed the remaining days of Ramadan in Makkah shortening the Prayers and not fasting.
In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Anas (R.A.) said,
" We stayed (in Makkah) for ten days along with the Prophet (S.A.W.) and used to offer shortened prayers (i.e. journey prayers)." (Sahih Bukhari: 4297)
The Conquest of Makkah is the most significant event in Islamic History. With this conquest, both the inside of Makkah and the places around it were cleaned of idols; the hearts of the Quraish were also cleaned of polytheism and became spotless with the light of oneness of Allah.